The list of category 1A and 1B substances classified as CMR was significantly expanded by Regulation (EU) 109/2012 in February 2012. These changes align these CMR substances to Regulation (EC) 790/2009, an amendment known as the CLP Regulation (Classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures).

REACH stipulates that substances on their own, in a mixture or incorporated within a product that are restricted in Annex XVII may not be manufactured, used or placed on the market unless they comply with the restriction (Article 67.1).

Examples of the carcinogenic (cancer causing) substances listed include benzene (1A), which is used as an intermediate chemical for plastics and synthetic fibres, in rubber, lubricants and dyes, as well as a solvent in inks and adhesives. Another classified as carcinogen is 4-aminoazobenzene (1B), commonly referred to as an azo dye, is used as a colorant for leather and textiles.

Classified as mutagenic substances (causing genetic change) is acrylamide (1B), which finds use in the manufacture of polyacrylamide polymers, as a textile printing paste and as an emulsion stabilizer in printing inks.

Whereas substances classified as repro-toxic (inhibiting reproduction or a cause of birth defects) include formamide, used in plastics such as EVA puzzle mats and as a softener for paper and fibers, and tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), which is used as a flame retardant for textiles, carpets, furniture, paints, electronics, toys and childcare articles.